Everywhere in the world women live longer than men – but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn’t live longer than men in the 19th century. Why do women live so longer than men and how does this benefit increase in the past? There isn’t much evidence and we have only partial answers. We know that biological, behavioral and environmental factors play a role in the fact that women live longer than men; however, we aren’t sure how significant the impact of each factor is.
In spite of the precise amount, we can say that at a minimum, the reason why women live so much longer than men today, Classicalmusicmp3freedownload.com/ja/index.php?title=%E5%88%A9%E7%94%A8%E8%80%85:Jamaal20Q086, www.poetmuseum.com, but not in the past, has to do with the fact that some significant non-biological elements have changed. These are the factors that are changing. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women’s longevity disproportionately.
Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. As we can see, all countries are above the diagonal line of parity – which means that in every country the newborn girl is likely to live longer than a new boy.1
This graph shows that although there is a women’s advantage everywhere, cross-country differences could be significant. In Russia women live 10 years longer than males. In Bhutan the difference is only half a year.
In rich countries the advantage of women in longevity was previously smaller.
We will now examine the way that female advantages in life expectancy has changed over time. The chart below illustrates the male and female life expectancies at the time of birth in the US between 1790-2014. Two distinct features stand out.
There is an upward trend. and women in the US live a lot, much longer than they did a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.
And second, there is an increase in the gap between men and women: female advantage in life expectancy used to be very modest but it increased substantially over the course of the last century.
Using the option ‘Change country by country’ in the chart, you are able to confirm that the two points apply to other countries that have available data: Sweden, France and the UK.